Khalil Jindy Rashow, University of Göttingen
There is no such controversial religion, nor one that has been so neglected by researchers as the yezidy religion. In spite of huge theoretical researches in this field, by number of western and eastern writers, there is no precise idea about the meaning of this religion and definition of its roats. Every writer in this field has put forward his ideas and interpretations; nevertheless, there is still no consensus among them. This difference originates owing to my mind, to the following reasons:
1- The fact is that the yezidies religion is not missionary one and has had little contact with the outside.
2- The religions ceremonies take place far away from the presence of foreigners, this raged the followers of our religions to create myths about the yezidies which are far removed from the essence of its reality.
3- There has been no record of the rituals and its religions texts and there were no means for the scholars to have access to the essence of these ceremonies and the truth of the Yezidis religions.
4- Less of investigations and scientific researchers about the relics of this ancient religion although there are still ruins and traces that deserve attention in the places which the Yezidis inhabit.
5- Lack of religions tolerance in the area generally and continuance of the Islamic expansion in apolitical frame owing to the fact of Islam, the main political power running the area, adding the different religions are neglected and rejected. Sometime such religions, which have political power, repress minority religions, and spread false rumours about them.
6- The religions and national backgrounds of earlier researchers reared widely,and as a result their views on the Yezidis religion and ethnicity also differed from one of them.
Because of these points and the great confusion about Yezidis origin and historic religion, it is difficult for the serious researcher to arise at a single opinion, so there are many theories or hypothesises (supposes) cast itself about the Yezidis origin and its basic principle.
The first theory which said that the Yezidis religion is a split from or lost Islamic groups which its history belongs to the end of seventh century after Christ and it is ascribed to ( yezid bin Mu´awia ), the second Khalifa of Umoyyad, state ( 680 – 683 A. c. ) who was a pupil of Muhammad bin Abudllah and to support their theory, those writers went to various doctrines. Some of them said that the yezidians believed in Yezid in order his get rid of Hussein the son of Ali, whom they did not respect, persecution by Sam´ani, who were not sublimated (Al – Hussein bin Ali) and they desire to belong to an excellent honourable personality. Another researcher thought that the Yezidis elected the name of ( Yezid-Al-Yezidi) to keep up with the Muslim rulers´ fanaticism. Another Arabic researcher say that the name of (Al-Yezidi) is given by Muslims to the tribes for mockery and derision. Dr. Joseph confirms the saying that the Yezidis belong to (Yezid bin Anise Al-Khargy) who had on dogma that the god send a prophet from Persia and a book comes down to him and it is written before, and Mohammed’s religion will be left and they follow “ Al-Sabean “ religion as it is mentioned in Al-Quran.
Another Arabic Muslim writer enthuses and connects Yezidis with Islam and with (Yezid bin Muawia). He believes that the Yezidis mentioned by Al-Sam´ani, who died in 1166 A. C. in his book (The difference in the pronunciation) that the Yezidis are the same as now, and Al-Sheikh (Uday bin Musafir) had migrated to their places, organised them and their condition, according to his opinion the Yezidis are older than Al-Sheikh Adi´s arrival.
A Turkish Muslim writer also connected origin of the Yezidis religion with Sheikh Adi bin Musafir´s appearance among them.
Although some of Muslim and Arab writers insisted that the Yezidis had become Muslims in Sheikh Adi bin Musafir´s time, they admit that the grandfathers of present Yezidis were in followed a religion that was opposed to monotheism, or that they were originally Zoroastrianism. This theory did not take support even from the Muslim writers, where there is no historical proof refers that Yezid bin Muawia had established during three and half years of his rule a new religion or followed Mohammed’s religion, then the Yezidis mention the name of Yezid – Ezid in their literature and religions name, it means being “God” and the other reasons belong according to my opinion to:
1- After the expansion of Islamic invasions in the east and north, the people and the wide influence religions generally, and specially the religions national minorities faced sorts of persecutions and force to leave their religions and accept Islam. During the A mawia state Caliphate and specially in the time of (Yezid bin Muawia), chance is given to those religions groups to keep the beliefs provided that to be protected under a strong Arabic tribes standard, or under the name of a strong Islamic or Arabic leader. At that time the phenomenon allegiance had appeared or those un Arabs and un Muslims people who kept on their nationalities and beliefs by adopting a name of an Arabic tribe or the name an Arabic leader, so perhaps the Yezidis accepted the name of (Yezid bin Muawia) and other names to avoid the Islamic evil. Here the one may agree with the second half of (Empsen´s) opinion about the Yezidis desire join to an excellent honourable character.
2- As long as Yezidis believe in rebirth, they thought that a piece of gods strength transferred to (Yezid), because de didn’t follow Mohammed’s religion according to the opinion of many Muslims writers and Islamic sources. Those religious groups which had persecuted from the spread of Islamic invitation thought that (Yezid) appeared to stand against the Islamic and saved them of the injustice and suffer.
3- Some Arab writers themselves believed that the Quraishies and the “Arab who became Arabs” including Ibrahim-el Khalil who came from Ur Haran “Orfa-Al Raha – the writer” were Babylonian remainders who
Saved from the massacre (Daryos Dara) set it up after the second occupation for Babylon and revenging to their revolution against him and deposed him from his authority. They built Al-Hujaz civilization. In a speech attributed to Ali bin Abu Talib, said that “who was asking about our pedigree, I’m from Nabit-Kutha”.
Al-Nabit by the Arabs mean Iraq or the oldest Babylonian. So upon this, the Quraishies origin is Babylon. When they entered Arab land they brought their language with them. If the idea that Quraishies being not Arab is right, and they are Babylonian people, at that time the question of attaching the name of Yezid bin Muawia with the Yezidis has another meaning absolutely.
As concern Joseph’s opinion, it doesn’t have any intellectual or historical evidence. The Yezidis have no relationship with the Ajam´s (Persians) prophet, if it was meant Persians or Iranian people. There isn’t existence for the prophet among Yezidis, but there is a direct spiritual relationship among them and their Creator first, secondly. Is that the Khwariges principle doesn’t identify with the Yezidis who believe in God, Taus Malak, confece with rebirth, and sanctified the sun and fire……etc.
The second theory: The origin and naming: which refers that the Yezidis religion is one of the oldest religions, independent from other religions, perhaps slopping from and overlapping with many of them and took many rites and habits or even the myths and old tales. Some available sources refer that the original residence for the Yezidis religion begins with the “Yezd” city which is near Kharasan in the east Iran near Afghanis border. It extends across southern Kurdistan (Iraqi Kurdistan nowadays) and westerly (Turkeys Kurdistan), Mosul in the north of Iraq till Alappo in Al-Sham (Syria). According to this theory, the name of Al-Yezidis or Ezidis derived from “Yezd city” in Iran. The present Yezidis were Zoroastrians origin and they believe in Dualism. Some of them emigrated from Yezd to Mosul´s countries running away from much taxes and they adopted Alappo, Sinjar, Al Sheikhan, wans lake and Qawqas as new residences and they are called with the name of their place where they left it. So they called Yezidis or Ezidis. Upon this opinion, layered had transcribed of “Nofanis”, the historian Greek in the seventh century A. C., “that the Emperor Herkluos had camped with his soldiers near Yezdem city, one of Hadiabs cities – or nowadays is Mosul / the writer. Maratan had said that this city may be the first place where the Yezidis spreaded from. It is difficult naming a religion with the city’s name.
Did Judaism Call by the name of ,, Urshelim,, or the Christianity by the name of ,, Al-nasirah,, and the Islam by the name of ,, Mekka,, and ,, Al- medinah,,?! And etc…but most religions are named according to its gods or prophets.
According to this point of view, most writers and researchers agree the Yezidis naming derive from the word Ized which meant ) Angel and god), Yazata in Avista which deserves the worship, yazd in Pahlawis language and Yajata in Sanskrit. So Aside, Izidi and Ezedi or Izdi are Gods worshipers. We find the name of Yezid in myth for aking of Ezda and Yazdan is one of Yezidis grandfathers, and Yazdans has called for the first Yezidians.
The priest Sulaiman Al-Saegh interpreted their naming by affiliated them to a god, they were worshipping and his name is “Yazd” or “Yezdan”, taking then by what had come in the history of “Keldo Ashur” from “Toma Sl-Murgy” in the ninth century A. C., who mentioned in his book “Al-Ruasa” (the presidents) of the people of “Morgan” city, that they were worshipping an idol called Yazd.
Notable western and Eastern eminent scholars try to take from the Dualism religion a start to find some similarities between Irani and Yezidis religions, but they didn’t answer, whether the Yezidis religion was known in Iran or Kurdistan? One of Iranian religions researcher said that a large number of idolater Iranians, the fire worships and devil worships, and Zoroastrians followed the new religions as it is their special religions. His speech indicated that the Yezidis appeared with its form and teachings in Iran area and from there transferred to all over the places which we find nowadays.
Empson added to professor Jackson’s theory that the old Yezidis and Magus’s religions methods has ariased from Zoroastrians, and the Yezidis modern history is affected of their friction with Christianity’s and their partly yield to Islamic rule which cause many changes in their beliefs. He adds “ we don’t know if the researches in the future will boost this theory, or another theories may appear better than it, and we will leave that for the future. He said also: to reach to a decisive result in the origin of Yezidis doctrine, we need a tight study in the people’s conditions that is the way which led to know it in middle Asia more than following its language and religion (….). The Yezidis who know a little about themselves, have traditions informed that they come from Al-Basra (the Sommerians), they emigrated to Syria and resided in Sinjar at last. The Prof. Dr. Kreijenbroek in his researches tends to connect among the Zoroastrians, Yezidis and Ahli haq and compared among Ahoramezade, Beniamin and Taus Malak.
If some eastern writers were bringing the Yezidis to Malawi back, others insisted that the Yezdis are continuation to the idolatry and Malawi is the essential of Yezidis religion and from it, the Yezidis religion is born and appeared to the existence. They remained for a long time pretending as an Islam to get rid of the persecution and they always were avoided the Iranian and Iraqi Muslims, then this dye disappeared as a result of the events which afflicted it, but it is till now remained. These writers take in their opinion to the existence of Christianity and Magus religions in Hakkar mountain before Al-Sheikh
Adi´s appearance. In the time of (Muqtadir bilah) (282 – 320) the people of mountains were followed Magus (Zoroastrian). In 299 of Muqtadir bilah´s rule, where there were Al-Mansur el Halaj and Al-Sheikh Abdul Qadir Algelani, appeared man called Sheikh Adi in Hakkar´s mountains. Many followers and pupils were encircled him and Damalooji wondered, were the people encircled Sheikh Adi bin Musafir Manna’s or Yezidis? He answered his question: If they were Muslims from Arabs and Kurds and they believe in Yezid bin Muawia, so why did Manawi appear among them will all its forms and returned the role of (Manj) with his form and copy.
As well as these opinions, there is who brings back the Yezidis to Christianity religious and denies is relationship with Islam pretending that there are some Christian’s aspects as baptism, believing in Christ, respecting Churches.
Some writers assure that the Yezidis are from ” Sabea” or Kaldian or Assyrian’s origin.
From the religious and national’s side, there is who says the Yezidis belong to the tribe ( Altearahia- Tiraha) and Adi’s father’s name is ( Musafir bin Ahmed Al-Kurd) Tirehy. They were mentioned only in the history of bin Al- ‘Ebri, the monk ( Ramishue ) took this information from him in the middle of fifteenth century.
Another Arabic researcher regards the Yezidis are kurdish people and regard sheikhan’s Yezidis Dasinis. Dasinies are Kurds who were been in series Dasin mountain and Yaqub Al- hamawi has mentioned in his dictionary and this mountain is called for Missouri’s mountain nowadays.
If Olmistead’s theory was right, that the Missouri’s clan is originally the clan of Assyrian’s ” Mesury – Musery” which was in the time of ( Sinhareeb) between Khazir’s tributaries, so we can say that Sheikhan’s Yezidis are grandsons for that Assyrian’s clan who lived in the beginning of the history in this place. But Sinjar’s Yezidis, Tor Abideen, Diar Bakir, Aleppo, Se’ared, Bedlis and Mardin to the end of Wan’s border and Qawkas land, there is no argument that they belong to kurdish pedigrees and they are originally from ” Sagros” series mountain’s people, who were found in this mountain since more than four thousand and five hundred years.
The Third Theory: Bing the religion is one of the oldest religions in Mesopotamia and Sham’s land, the hypothesis of the existence presents evidences and relationship of many sides among the old Iraqi religions as Summerian, Babylonian and Assyrian from one side and between the Yezidis religion from other side. We can restrict the connection sides among the Yezidis and the mentioned religions above in:
1- Some rites, ceremonies and feasts specially the new year fest which is in the first Wednesday of April. It was called the fest of ( Akito) by the Summerian, ( Sersal) by Babylonian and Yezidis. Also the spring festival ( the ceremonies of the god’s city) and it is called by Yezidis ( Tawaf ) and every Yezidis villages has it festival ( begins with the new year fest and continues till the end of June). Wednesday in every week is sacred day by the Yezidis as it was by Babylonian.
2- The marriage, working, washing clothes and body, haircutting and ploughing the earth are prohibited in April. Marriage in April is prohibited by the Yezidis as it was by Babylonians. It was regarded as month of the prophets and righteonse’s marriage and the gods and king’s marriage month by Babylonian before them by Summerian, where it was celebrated the marriage of the god ( Nengerso) with the goddess ( Baw) in Jerso’s city.
3- The large approach between Summerian’s god ( Ano) and the god (Nabo ) and Taus Malak’s Yezidi in the following fields:
a- The one god, the duality in one or the good and evil’s forces embody in one god, the light and darkness at the sometime and the high sacred symbol by the three religions.
b- Connection with astrology and astronomy’s cases, the planet ( Mercury) is the symbol which presents these three gods.
c- Wednesday is the day of Mercury’s planet ( Symbol for Taus Malak, NBA and No) and it is asacred day by the Babylonians and Yezidis.
d- The symbol which Mercury expressed about ” He is young ridding peacock holding asnacke in his right hand and abroad reading it in his left hand. His another picture is aman sitting on chair carrying holy book reading it, crown on his head and he was wearing agreen and yellow clothes.
The snake plays large role in Yezidis mythology, and also in various people’s methology. Speeches talk about the snake, contain the life’s contradictions; it is connected with life and death and it refers to the goodness and evil at the same time. It expresses about the wisdom and astuteness, it is the symbol of optimise times and pessimism another times, and garrison for the rule and mony treasury. It is spoken about with kind of veneration, respect and fear together.
e- The religious arrangements ( religious classes) and adhering to the principle of heredity in the religious positions, are similar between the Yezidis and Babylonians.
f- The Existence of god Sin’s character and his sanctification between the Yezidis and Babylonians.
g- As well as to the existence of names and common words among the immediate Yezidis and Summerians and Babylonians.
The Fourth Theory :
The researchers and writers efforts area first and last in respect place to the best they have done of intellectual power to uncover the curtain about some Edition religion’s sides, or to recognise it history and beliefs’ source, but the discerning research, or who has simple knowledge about the Yezidian’s beliefs, notification on their rites and their religious literature would argue if not disprove some writers and researchers’ hypothesises and their admissions being the Yezidis Manawis or Zoroastrianism’s ruin.
I do not deny the similar existence of evidences habits and rites among them, as there are similar worships among Yezidis, old Egyptian religion or Greek and Sabea, concerning their sanctification the Sun for example, where the similar geographic environments create approximate worships and cultures without any connection among different humanity groups.
If the dualism was the support belief for Manawi’s religion and it is built on radicalism in asceticism death’s sanctification, contemplating materialism sides in the life, marriage prohibition, and regarding Mani’sestablishment for Sufis, the Yezidis neither preserve in their religious heritage nor in their oral stories prophet named ( Mani) or ( Zoroastra) and the Yezidis do not fast thirty (30) days in April as Manawis did. The marriage connection is sacred by Yezidis contrary to the Manawis which they have deprived, and the killing of birds and animals are allowed by the Yezidis and it is not deprived as it was by the Manawis…etc.
The Yezidis don’t meet with the two religions ( Zoroastrianism and Mannerism) in the dualism’s belief, there is no existence to the good’s god and evil’s god, however the goodness and evils power gather in one god or the one god with dualism in one.
About this subject we can refer to some essential differences’ points between the Yezidis and Zoroastrians which embody in : the deeds are buried by the Yezidis and regarded the grave as the real home and eternal for the body or soul, while the Zoroastrians put the corpses on high place to be eaten by the birds. If smoking was forbidden by Zoroastrians, but tobacco has especial place by Yezidis and there is god who takes care of, beside this the Yezidis don’t know prophet named Zoroastra- spite of some solutions by some excessive. The Yezidis don’t mention him even once in their prays, while another prophets are mentioned like Moses, Jesus, Noah and Daniel…etc.
Here ” Empson” was right when said ” to get to final result to Yezidians doctrine’s origin, we need affirm study in the nation’s conditions, specially in small Asia more than following it language and religion…”
Perhaps the man can establish theory – or hypothesis on ” Empson” opinion and here we can say that the researcher who wish really recognise Yezidians religion’s history and origins, he has to listen well what Yezidis themselves say through their stories and what their religious literature containing concepts and terms and what meant their rites, habits and fests. The researcher must not forget to stop by their religious corners, and the classes’ arrangement, studying their names and their clan’s names and the kind of their clothes.
The most important is the connector found among all that characters and concepts which seem as it is starred on awide areas of the Earth time, it is difficult to limit it beginning and ending.
I try to give some signals about some Yezidians belief’s thoughts and what come in their oral religious literature on in their religious texts : the faith of Taus Malak, the holy Wednesday, sanctification of natural phenomena – Ezida in Babylon and his relationship with the name of Yezidian. The story of Adam’s create in Lalish and Noah’s flood on Yezidis land ( Ain- Sifni = Sheikhan), Ibrahim Al- khalil – Pharaoh. The Sun and the Moon’s sanctification- the seven Angels – the stars and planets – the holy animals, sheikh Adi- Hussein el- Halage, Moses, Jesus, Mecca, Lalish- the sea – Hakkar- Hurry as the first mother for Yezidis or Hurry- Kale” Kaldian”- Dwomily..ect)
I have written subject about puzzles and hiding questions about how to understand and study the Yezidis religion’s philosophy, I cast in it anew method to unfasten the symbols of that puzzles and find an answer to it and for many questions which are not answered till now. Without that it is difficult to know the Yezidis religion’s origins and it philosophy against the universe and creation.
The Taus Malak’s concept is so old that it belongs to the appearance of the religious concepts. The Yezidians connect it before the universe’s creation. The other question is : what is the relationship between the Yezidis and Ibrahim El- Khalil who went out of Haran ( Orfa- Alharan) or ( Ur Kaldan) as is named by some others?!..Is Ibrahim El-Khalil the same Muses ( Akhnatun) who entered Egypt and went out to Sina and then settled in Canaan’s land?!…Are there relationship connected between Hakkari’s clan ( Alkaria) and (Hexos-Hexes ) Indo- European’s nation which descended from areas ( Wan and Ararat), ruled Egypt in pharaoh’s time and withdraw from it with Hebrews to Canaan’s land?..If Haran was distorted of the word ( Heq) which means the ( god), or ( Shepherd’s god ), as some references mention, so is Hakkari’s clan attributed to the god of that Abraham’s city.?!
Why do the Yezidis says that Nabukheth Nasir ( Bakht Nasir as the Yezidis call) was Yezidi and went to destroy Urshelim and take the stolen Yezidis Hollis ( Alsinjeq ) or the old Taus’s symbol, Ibrahim Khalil Ram- the Idol- the black book ( Mishaf rash)- and the Lamp with nine head?!…
Why do the Yezidians sanctify the Sun and Moon together, as we know that the Sun’s worship belongs agricultural urbanise groups, and the Moon’s worship belongs the ( nomadic groups who pastures?!..Are the two phenomenon’s worship ( the Sun and the Moon) deep- rooted by the Yezidians or it is the Sun of Pharaoh’s Atone or it is Saab’s sun, or Mesopotamian’s, Mithra and Greek?!
Are the Yezidis name attributed to ( Ezida) the god Nabo’s temple in Babylon or it is attributed to ( Yezdan- the Creator), or to ( Yezid bin Maawia) or ( Yezid bin Anes Al- khargy)?…Are Hakkary and Khalties clans which allot of Yezidians belong to, and gave their name to wide land of Kurdistan and extend from eastern Iran to Wan and to north Mosul, are these Yezidians clans settled in this land since the history’s dawn even with other names, or come from the south areas?!
If Yezidis really were ” Arab Muslim” and Yezid bin Maawi’s followers, so why do their religious literature are kurdish?
If they were Manawis and Zoroastrian religious’ ruins, why do Yezidis look for holy book for themselves and don’t preserve ” Zend Avista and Gatha” in their houses ?..and why don’t they glorify Zoroastra or Mani in their prays?
Among the heaps of these questions and others, the serearch is achieved about Yezidians name, history and belief.
They are really mirror reflect through it history’s depth, habits and rite’s high bred as it becomes splendid colourful for the nationality and religion’s heritage connected more than one continent together.
* Lecture to : The Centre of Asia and Africa Study in Kiel University ( ZAAS ) at 27.6.2001
 R. H. W. EMPSON, The Cult of Peacock Angel, London 1928.
 BADGER ( Rev. George Percy), Yezeedees ( ,, The Nestorian and their Rituals,, , Vol. 1, London 1852, ( Taking from: Al- Damlooji, Sadiq, p. 176)
 FRAZER ( James George), Yezidis; Their belief as to new years day ( ,, The Golden Bough,, , Vol. IV, London 1919; p. 117.
 Joseph ( Isya), Devil- Worship: the sacred books and traditions of the Yezidis ( The Gorham press, Boston 1919, p. 229), ( taking from: Al- Damdooji S., p176)
 Azzawi ( ‘Abbas), Yezidi History and the Origin of their beliefs, Baghdad 1935. ( Taking from: Dr. Al- Ahmed S. S., The Yezidis; their life and beliefs, 1971 Baghdad, p. 14)
 Taimur ( Ahmed), The Yezidis and the origin of their ethnic, Cairo 1347.
– look: Al- Hasany ‘Abdulrazzaq, Yezidis in their present- day and past, p. 13, and Al- Damlooji S., Yezidis, 1949, p. 163, also Al- Dewaji S., The Yezidis Origin and their development, Al- Risala ( magazine), Issue 12, 1944, Nr. 557-558-559-560, p. 213-214- 231- 232. ( Taking from: Dr. Al- Ahmed, S., p. 23)
 Dr. Ahmed S., Yezidis,…p. 23
 Al- Damlooji S., Yezidis,…p. 176.
 Al- Damlooji S., Yezidis,…p. 176.
 Mubarik, Muhammad, Trying to understand the personality, pp. 21-24, ( Taking from: Mutar, Salem, Wounding Soul, Beirut 1997, p. 329)
 Group of researchers: ( ‘Hisad al-fikir fi al- lu’xa al-‘erabia= Crop of think in the Arabic language, pp. 285-286, (Taking from: Mutar, S., Wounding Soul, p. 330)
 Dr. Habib, Kadim, Priority look to Yezidi’s kurdish Religion minority, Roj ( magazine), Nr. 6, 1998, p. 22.
 Dr. Habib, K., p. 22.
 EMPSON, The Cult of Peacock Engel, pp. 37-42.
 LAYARD ( Sir Austin Henry), the Yezidis ( ” Nineveh and it Remains”, 1849,1, pp. 225-266 and his book: ( ” Discoveries in the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon”, London 1853- see: Al- Damlooji S.
 Theodore Menzel; Yezidi, Encyclopaedia of Islam, London IV, p. 1164a, Leiden) 1913- 1938. See: Dr. Al- Ahmed S., p. 29.
 Al- Sayi’g, Sulaiman, History of Mosul, Cairo 1923.
 Prof. Jackson ( A. V. Williams), Yezidis ( ” New International Encyclopaedia” , Vol. XX, New York 1910; pp. 17, 939) p. 170.
 EMPSON, p. 14.
 Prof. Dr. Kreijenbroek Philip, Mithra and Ahreman and Binyamin and Malak Taus / Traces of an Ancient Myth in the Cosmogonies of two modern Sects.
 See: Nuri Pasha, Devil- Worship.
 Al-Damlooji S., pp. 169-170
 Hakkar area and Hakkar mountain, ( ‘Hakkar) as the Arab pronounced, call for wide places in Kurdistan extends from Jolemerg in Iran to Shamdinan area in Turkey, and comes down to Imadia’s areas, Atroosh and Sheikhan south, including the sacred Lalish.
Till now there is ayezidian clan which is called ( Hakkarian’s clan), Sheikh Adi all the Peers belong to this clan.
 EMPSON, the same literature
 Bin Al- ‘Ebri, His Surian History; Kironikon Siryakum.
 Al-Damlooji S., p. 165, and Mayi Anwar, Kurds in Bahdinan, Dihok 1999, 2 pub., pp. 86-88
 Al- Hashimi, Taha; ( Mufesal ju’xrafiyet Al-Iraq)= The detail of Iraq geography, p. 109. See: Al- Damlooji, p. 175
 Al-Damlooji, p. 175.
 Zeki, Amin: Short History from Kurd and Kurdistan, Vol. 1, pp. 73-205.
 Hahih, Georg, p. 14
 Habib, George, pp. 14-16 and Dr. H. Kadim, p. 20.
 Dr. H. Kadim, p. 22.
 Kunji, Sabah: Roj ( magazine), Issue Nr. 3/ 1997 and 10/ 2001.
 Mutar, S., p. 311
 Khalil J. Rashow, Roj ( magazine), Nr. 10, 2001.